Eradication of Poverty from the Viewpoint of Shia Jurists – Part 6

Below is the continuation and part of three of previous article previous article, Eradication of Poverty from the Viewpoint of Shia Jurists – Part 5.
By: Mostafa Daneshgar

Recipients of Zakat

The holy Qur’an says Zakat should be paid to 8 groups among them the poor and the destitute (36) These two concepts deal with two stages before reaching what is defined as richness. The first stage can be adapted to abject poverty. The question is whether, while deciding on distributing Zakat, the jurists consider a priority for those who are poorer and unable to provide the bare essentials of life such as food, clothing and housing, in other words, those who live in absolute poverty. There is evidence that shows they consider no priority. The evidence can be categorized as:

A) The priorities for paying Zakat to the needy,

B) The lack of necessary conditions for receiving Zakat, and

C) The failure to consider the principles of insufficiency of Zakat for the poor.

A) Priorities for paying Zakat to the needy

There is consensus among the jurists over priorities for paying Zakat to the needy. However, they are not based on only the living conditions of those eligible to receive it. Many jurists maintain that a key priority is whether the individual who is eligible to receive Zakat has justice as a key personality trait.

Saheb Javaher says if an unjust person lives in harsh conditions to such a degree that he cannot even provide himself food, he’s entitled to receive Zakat. He says what has made this possible is the Quranic verse that says: “give away to the fasiq (impious) an amount”. This is because the word amount indicates the payment of small sums to the fasiq needy so they could provide clothing and food. He believes that the status of the fasiq person is not the same as that of the just person in terms of receiving Zakat. Having mentioned this, Saheb Javaher emphasizes that the safest thing to do by considering all those conditions is, however, not to pay Zakat not to the fasiq person. This is out of cautiousness, he says, because we are not absolutely certain about all the reasons, thus the payee of Zakat may not be freed from duty by paying to such a person. As a result, it’s better for Zakat to be paid to the just person rather than the fasiq one.(38) Hence, although Saheb Javaher in the beginning authorized the payment of Zakat to the fasiq person and his family to provide food, he says it is safest not to do so later in his script.

With regards to the precondition of justice, there is consensus among contemporary jurists that there should be no conditions on who is really eligible to receive Zakat. (39) Jurists believe that it is desirable to give priority to a certain group of individuals who are eligible to receive Zakat over others based on certain clear reasons. For instance, Saheb Hada’eq contends that Islamic scholars believe that prioritizing a certain group of people eligible to receive Zakat is desirable for certain reasons. Examples include the fact that there are some more eligible people or the fact that some people may be so humble that they won’t ask others for help.The individual entitled to receive Zakat could also be a family member or a relative. He then quotes Sheikh Mofid through Allameh Helli that the priority given to certain people in receiving Zakat is an obligation.

Sheikh Mofid believes that the needy should be given priorities based on their scholarly knowledge, their insight, their pureness and their faith. Therefore, the degree of neediness has no place among the priorities to be considered for receiving Zakat in the eyes of Sheikh Mofid. Nevertheless, the desirable priorities that Saheb Hada’eq says the religious authorities have clearly indicated in religious texts are the ones that define a needy person as somebody who fails to ask others for help even though he or she is in the harshest conditions because he is too humble to do so.Still, they do not clearly say that the degree of neediness is one of the priorities. In one of his scripts,

Allameh Helli has discussed this, saying it is desirable for the individuals who are needier to be given a priority over others. He also believes that giving priority to the people who are educated is also a virtue. Allameh Helli also regards the people who refuse to ask others for help as people who should be given priority. This is because those individuals live in poverty due to the same attitude.

(41) Grand scholar Sayyid Mohammad Kazem Yazdi says in his Orvat-ul-Vuthqa that the degree of poverty is considered to be among desirable priorities after justice and virtue. He emphasizes that in paying Zakat, the recipient’s being the most just and the most virtuous is more important. In case of a conflict between the two as in cases when one is more just and another more virtuous or one is more just and the other needier, there should be a careful examination of all the cases and the one should be picked as per the nature of the case.  (42) On the same notion, Ayatollah Montazeri makes references to scholarly texts that testify to the abovementioned priorities. However, he says there is a conflict between references that attach a higher significance to values such as justice and virtue and the references that give priority to the degree of neediness and, as he says, are against the philosophy of Zakat.

(43) Therefore, with regard to priorities over spending Zakat, for the individuals who have lived in absolute poverty and are unable to provide their very basic needs like food, clothes and housing, are not necessarily given priority. Nonetheless, renowned jurists like Allameh Helli and Yazdi emphasize that the degree of neediness as a desirable factor is equal to other priorities like justice and others. Still, none of the scholars believe that the degree of neediness is a mandatory condition for giving priority to an individual.

B) The question of extending Zakat. (coming soon)

Eradication of Poverty from the Viewpoint of Shia Jurists – Part 2

Below is the continuation and part of two of previous article.

Eradication of Poverty from the viewpoint of jurists

By: Mostafa Daneshgar

A study of the different aspects of Islamic jurisprudence shows that in the eyes of the jurists, eradication of poverty can be considered from two perspectives: the obligations of the rich and the obligations of the religious government. Hence, we will address the two areas to understand their views.

1) Responsibilities of the rich toward the poor

These duties can be divided into voluntary and obligatory groups.  By voluntary duties, we mean the rules pertaining to the desirables which have been outlined by Islam for satisfying the needs of the poor and for which afterlife reward has been promised.  Borrowing, endowing, Zakat (Statutory Islamic levy on specified items to be used for Muslims’ welfare) and wills fall in this category.  Another type of voluntary duty is that to which a Muslim commits himself. For instance, he pledges, say, to feed the poor if his request is fulfilled. Although after people commit themselves to Nazr (a solemn vow whose fulfillment is Wajib), it must be fulfilled; yet, Nazr is considered a voluntary responsibility as it is basically a voluntary act.

By obligatory duties, we mean those which have been described by the religion as a duty for the rich. Zakat, Khums (Statutory 20% Islamic levy on certain things) and financial Kaffarah (a “covering” action taken by someone who’s made a mistake or committed a sin) are of this type.

A) The financial duties of the rich

Zakat is among the most famous financial obligations for Muslims. Regardless of where it comes from and what it applies to, Zakat goes to the poor and destitute. There are eight cases on which Zakat is spent. Khoms is another financial obligation half of which goes to the Sayyids [descendants of the Prophet Muhammad’s household].The Ramadan Zakat known as Fitrah is another financial obligation spent in favor of the poor. The criterion for paying Fitrah is the food consumed by the public.

Islam has levied financial punishments or fines to compensate for certain sins. These are called Kaffarahs. Feeding the destitute or giving them clothes are forms of Kaffarah for many of the sins.  Kaffarahs are of four types.

The first one is Moratabah. This means that first a fine is determined and in case of failure to pay it, another fine will be determined. Moratabah is of three types. The punishments for Zihar (calling wives mothers) and manslaughter are liberating a slave or, in case of failure, fasting two months in a row or, in case of failure, feeding 60 destitute people. Anyone who breaks his fast after noon shall have to feed ten destitute people. In case of failure, he must fast for three days in a row.

The second type of Kaffarah is called Mukhayyerah. This means that the wrongdoer can choose from among the punishments administered for the sin he has committed. Accordingly, anyone who, say, breaks his fast in Ramadan or breaks a promise or Nazr and also a woman who gets a haircut while mourning a loved one must either release a slave or fast for two consecutive months or feed sixty poor people.

The third kind of Kaffarah is the Mukhayyerah-Moratabah. Anyone who breaks his oath or a woman who pulls her hair or injures her face while mourning a loved one or a man who tears his clothes while mourning his child or wife can liberate a slave or feed ten poor people or clothe them. In case he/she cannot afford to do so, they can fast for three days in a row.

The fourth type is the collective Kaffarah. That becomes necessary when someone kills a faithful person on purpose or unintentionally or when they break their fast in Ramadan by doing something which is haram or forbidden under the Islamic Sharia. To compensate for these sins, the perpetrator must liberate a slave, fast for two months in a row and feed 60 penniless people. (8) A study of the four types of Kaffarahs reveals the high importance Islam attaches to the poor.  As for the Moratabah and Mukhayyerah Kaffarahs, what is prevalent in practice is the feeding of the penniless. Another obligation is that when someone is in dire need of food, anyone who can afford to feed him is obliged to do so and save him from the dire situation.

B)Voluntary assistance offered by the rich to the poor (Coming in Part 3)

Eradication of Poverty from the Viewpoint of Shia Jurists – Part 1

By: Mostafa Daneshgar

The present research aims to offer an insight into the views of Shia jurists on how poverty, particularly absolute poverty, should be encountered. Hence, the study will try to answer such questions as: How should poverty be tackled? What is the duty of the rich and rulers in the fight against poverty? What is the extent of this duty? Should fighting absolute poverty be prioritized over fighting other levels of poverty or not?

Human societies have always suffered from poverty. After the industrial revolution, human capabilities developed in an unprecedented way. In spite of spinning the wheels of industry through strenuous labor and mass production, workers were deprived of minimum rights. Under such circumstances, poverty is bitterer and causes more suffering. The disasters that befell the workers during the industrial age ushered in anti-capitalist ideologies.

Marxism was the most lasting and outstanding offspring of the situation. Meanwhile, workers and the poor unrelentingly fought to achieve their rights. Today, the capitalist system has managed, after many ups and downs, to considerably alleviate the suffering of the poor through the establishment of an efficient social security system. The success of the capitalist system has posed this question to the rival schools of thought as to how they viewed poverty and what tool they devised to fight the heinous phenomenon.

Islam and Muslim Poverty
Muslim scholars are pursuing the issue with special interest. This is because all Muslim nations are among underdeveloped or developing countries and large numbers of people in these societies suffer from poverty and backwardness. Rampant poverty in Muslim countries has prompted some individuals to point the finger at Islam, blaming the dire conditions on Islamic ideology and beliefs. Hence, it is necessary to study the views of Islam and Muslims about poverty. Muslim jurists and scholars have been the most prominent religious figures of Islam throughout history shouldering the responsibility for discovering and outlining Islamic rules. The jurists have served as a link connecting people to Islam and playing a key role in the development of religious views. Thus, it is important to study and assess their views on how poverty should be fought.

This research aims to delve into the standpoints of the jurists on the issue of poverty and seek their answers to the following questions:

  • What is the edict of jurists about fighting the dire situation faced by people in impoverished societies?
  • Do they consider fighting poverty and its worst form, that is, absolute poverty, a religious duty and a must and pursue this with special interest or merely consider it as a desirable?
  • If they consider eradicating poverty a must, then does the obligation to fight the phenomenon lie with the government or with all the rich, particularly in case the government is not able or does not want to give priority to tackling the issue? To what extent must poverty be fought?
  • Should the government levy new taxes for this purpose if ordinary taxes fail to meet the needs of the poor or borrow national loans? Should the wealthy pay as much money as necessary to eradicate poverty if tax revenues are not sufficient?

Fighting poverty can be divided into three stages from the perspective of any of the viewpoints:

  1. Natural resources and the way they are distributed is a key factor in breeding poverty. The monopoly of the resources by a special group will culminate in poverty. Hence, a group of development economists like Myrdal (2), Griffin (3), Emerij (4) and Todaro believe that strategies whose aim is to root out poverty and satisfy the primary needs of human beings should focus on the natural resources and riches.
  2. Productive forces. Productive forces have an important part in the breeding of poverty. The mechanism of economic activities and the extent of economic freedoms determine the roles of production forces in both labor and capital markets. For instance, the 18th and 19th centuries in industrial countries can be called the age of absolute and unlimited power of the capitalists. Free contracts allowed the capitalists to impose their terms and conditions on workers as a result of which wages were so low that a writer in that period says: “If it was possible to discover some food less pleasant than bread but sufficient to sustain the body for 48 hours, then people would have to eat once in every two days.” (5) Workers were subjected to aggression, oppression and abuse. This is depicted by writers in different ways. Hiring children regardless of their age in the most unhygienic conditions, long hours of hard work for men and women, meager wages, violence in the workplace and diseases caused by unhygienic conditions of the workplace were all caused by totally liberal contracts. The classicist French economist Jean-Batiste Say describes the tough working conditions in England after a visit to the country in 1815 in this way: “Although he is the breadwinner for his family and despite all strenuous efforts he makes at work, which deserves praise, a worker is not able to provide more than three fourths and at times slightly more than half of his vital needs.” (7) The market mechanism based on its supply and demand curve shows the economic equilibrium. However, this mechanism cannot tell whether the equilibrium is proportionate to the minimum wage. Therefore, the type of market mechanism and the extent of economic freedom as well as the presence of the government in the economic sector all play an effective role in breeding poverty.
  3. Redistribution: When the economy wheels began to spin and economic activities started, any of the production forces secures a share in proportion to the economic mechanism of society and earns income.

In the meantime, families who have no breadwinners or have handicapped breadwinners or jobless ones have no share of the economic activities. A group of people are also working but for some reason their income is too low to cover their living costs.  As a result, these people are below the poverty line. At this stage, the necessity for redistributing wealth and streamlining the social security system becomes clear. Each economic system based on its own viewpoint and economic situation designs special tools to confront the problem. These tools are not equally efficient. Two of the three foregoing stages, that is, the combination of primary assets and production forces address the roots of poverty. The third stage explores the ways of fighting poverty. That’s why gaining an insight into all viewpoints of an ideology or school of thought on the phenomenon calls for studying all the three stages. This research studies the third stage.

Therefore, its subject is the eradication of poverty from the standpoint of Shia jurists. The research approaches the subject from two angles. The first one is related to the views of the jurists about eradication of poverty without emphasizing a certain type of poverty. The second one focuses on absolute poverty. In fact, after studying the case from the first angle, this question arises: Have jurists set a priority regarding the fight against the harshest type of poverty, that is, absolute

Eradication of poverty from the viewpoint of jurists (Coming in Part 2)

What Happens After the Oil Era?

Ayatollah Sayed Mohammad Al-Shirazi gives the solution

By: Hussein Al-Rumaithi

Extrapolating the core causes of the Middle Eastern economic and social stagnation will reveal indebtedness, maladies, ignorance and corruption affiliated with our situations, is due to the record levels of poverty in this region. In a quote narrated by one of the infallible Imams of Shi’a Islam, the issue of poverty has been considered as infidelity, or a virus that will infect the immune system of human body. Poverty will force people to borrow money, and borrowing is accompanied with interest, which will keep the borrower in debt as long as possible. Such a situation will prevent a citizen to have access to healthcare and decent dietary that will result in nutrition related sicknesses and since the citizen is unable to access healthcare, his situation will just worsen. However, an observer might wonder, Middle East is considered the richest place on earth when it comes to natural resources and wealth, so why would the citizens of the Middle Eastern countries suffer in such a disastrous way?

The title of this article gives the impression that it is about oil and the dependency of Middle Eastern states on this resource for fueling their economies, however, the issue of poverty is the major factor in this dilemma, since the people have not been able to see any good from their natural resources. One of the factors that has prolonged the survival of the Middle Eastern states is the planned poverty of the people, which has resulted in ignorance and inability to continue education, and this notion is directly related to the way, states are spending the wealth generated from these natural resources like oil.

Unfortunately, the governments in the Middle East have not attempted to diversify their economies to include other ways to generate wealth, and therefore, most of their GDP is accumulated from sale of oil.  Due to the authoritarian nature of the regimes in the Middle East, the distribution of wealth is not being done accordingly, and favoritism and tendency to monopoly the wealth has always prevented the arrival of funds and wealth to the people. On the other hand the states have to cover their failures to build infrastructures, by enforcing high rates of taxations, which will weary the burden of a random citizen and keep him in a constant effort to just survive, and never elevate himself. Unnecessary taxation will drive employers to minimize their hiring rate to be able to pay their dues to the state, and this notion will increase unemployment, which will result in worsening the situation as well. The state however, will try to accumulate a decent number of loyal citizens and at the same time to contain the people, and prevent them from ever raising up against the state. Therefore, the best way to implement such a step would be employing as much as possible in the public sector. Therefore, a country that needs two hundred thousand employees in the public sector is overloaded with five times more than the number needed. Such a notion will result in an unnecessary burden on the taxpayers and the state, and minimize the factor of creativity and progress. A country would progress and elevate through its public sector, and its ability to prevail, and maximize profit through new industries and wealth generation means. When the competencies and the high qualifications in a country are driven away or undermined, they ability of the state to diversify its economy and sources of wealth are very little, and this notion will result in a fragile nation.

Ayatollah Sayed Mohammad Al-Shirazi asks, “What would happen after Oil?” It seems like the Middle Eastern states are not in a position to accept that one day their oil wells might dry out, and the torch on top of the oil refineries might be off. Therefore, it is very logical to ask, what have they planned? How are they proposing to run their economies with no more funds being generated? Are they depending on financial aids from the western countries?

Ayatollah Shirazi proposes that creating saving fund for the future is the first step. He proposes a set percentage of the funds generated from the oil must be kept in a saving fund to ensure the ability to bridge the gaps after the privation of Oil. In addition, he puts forward a set of ways to generate other means of income for the country through taking advantage of rest of the natural resources. Waterfalls, rivers, dams, tidal levels, nuclear energy and solar power could be alternatives for fuel and wealth generation if the state invest accordingly in these resources, and consider them as essential ways to diversify its economy. To apply such policies the state needs to create opportunities for its citizens to acquire the necessary qualifications through making education accessible to all citizens, and invest these expertise in its developmental policies, by creating the perfect environment for them to deliver their creativity and innovation. A country like Japan, which does not have the resources the Middle Eastern countries have, was able to transform its economy after the second world war, and currently is considered one of the greatest economic powers on earth.

Ayatollah Shirazi proposes a set of notes to be considered when planning such a program.

  1. Establishment of veritable industrial policies based on the needs and demands of the nation according to the present and future status. These policies should assure bridging the gaps and covering the demands of country itself, and not the interests of other places, because linking these industrial policies to the demands and the needs of the nation is more important than investing the wealth generated from oil for future purposes.
  2. Implementing a correct coordination and equilibrium between different sectors that are active in the country. Meaning, if the country’s demand for a specific industry has been calculated to be five percent, and another industry twenty-five percent, it should not be the other way around. These calculations and demands should be prioritized and planned accordingly.
  3. Implementing economic collaboration between the Middle Eastern and Islamic States. If the Middle Eastern countries share their expertise and combine their efforts to deliver their economies to self-efficiency, they would never be in need of foreign aid and outside help. Ayatollah Shirazi says: “imagine if we combined the wealth of the Gulf States, the Egyptian expertise and the fertile Sudanese lands for cultivation and agriculture. We would achieve self-efficiency in our food sector”. Unfortunately, the Middle Eastern States are in constant state of conflict and grudges against each other, and in many cases, they offer their help and wealth to be in the hands of the ones that do not need the help.
  4. Liberating and launching freedoms. If oil was not sufficient to find a solution for poverty in the Middle East, launching and liberating freedoms would be the perfect solution to this problem. Freedom means providing the largest opportunities for efforts and innovations and jobs for people, and therefore, it means increase in productivity and profit, and these two results are the greatest factors in minimizing and eliminating poverty and state of need. If people had the freedom to choose, implement, and innovate, there would be a single piece of land in the Middle East, which is not uninhabited. The prophet of Islam says in a narration: “Land belongs to God and whomever builds it”. This notion will give people the ability to choose where they would like to live and have a role in contributing to the economy. This notion will be a solution to many housing problems, over-populated areas, and creating a competent middle class, and at the same time, unemployment will be minimized to the maximum. On the other hand, one of the most important features of freedom in a society is diminishing of ignorance and illiteracy, which is a great tool for any authoritarian regime to survive and apply it arbitrary policies.

It has been said before, that existence of oil in the Middle East was a curse and not a grace or a favor, since oil was the main factor in raging wars and instability in this region. However, it is the lack of intelligent and will that has brought the Middle East to its current situation not the oil. Middle Eastern governments had a golden opportunity to make this region heaven on earth, transform it to one of the most places, which enjoys prosperity and stability, but their corruption and obstinacy has brought nothing but calamities and grievances for this region.

***

Sources
(1)Majlisi. Bihar Al-Anwar. Iran, Qom. Al-A’alami publishing. V 69. P 29
(2)Sayed Mohammad Al-Shirazi. What happens after Oil?. Lebanon, Beirut. Dar Al-Wafaa Publishing. 1997. P15
(3)Sayed Mohammad Al-Shirazi. What happens after Oil?. Lebanon, Beirut. Dar Al-Wafaa Publishing. 1997. P16
(4)Sayed Mohammad Al-Shirazi. What happens after Oil?. Lebanon, Beirut. Dar Al-Wafaa Publishing. 1997. P19
(5)Sayed Mohammad Al-Shirazi. What happens after Oil?. Lebanon, Beirut. Dar Al-Wafaa Publishing. 1997. P25
(6)Sayed Mohammad Al-Shirazi. What happens after Oil?. Lebanon, Beirut. Dar Al-Wafaa Publishing. 1997. P27
(7)Sayed Mohammad Al-Shirazi. What happens after Oil?. Lebanon, Beirut. Dar Al-Wafaa Publishing. 1997. P29
(8)Al-Kulaini. Foru’a Al-Kafi. Iran, Qom. Al-A’alami Publishing. 1992. V 5. P 279. No 2.
(9)Sayed Mohammad Al-Shirazi. What happens after Oil?. Lebanon, Beirut. Dar Al-Wafaa Publishing. 1997. P35

Where is the World Heading?

Economic meltdowns, Civil Conflicts, Natural Disasters, Political Turmoil, Poverty, Neo Slavery and etc…

By: Hussein Al-Rumaithi

By spending one hour a day watching news from around the globe, an observer will be able to determine that there is serious calamities and tragedies of all natures taking places all over the world. What is notable is, these problems are not limited to a specific geographic destination, and they do not differentiate between the developing world, or the developed world or the destitute places on this planet.  Whether in the United States, Europe, Japan or in Africa or the Middle East, there are calamities and tragedies everywhere, and everyone is seeking solutions and asking questions about the roots, the reasons and the outcomes.

Africa has been the home to some of the most tragic violent ethnic and sectarian conflicts with victims Africa Povertyexceeding millions, and illnesses ripping the social fabric of this beautiful continent. To top these tragedies, record levels of poverty and misplaced masses are exhausting the nations and keeping them in constant need of foreign aid and being exposed to intrusions and outside influence.

The Middle East is torn apart due to political turmoil and sectarian tensions, which is evaporating any notion of co-existence and tolerance in this ancient part of the world that is the birthplace of the major three monotheistic religions in the world.

Europe is being exhausted with its fragile economy, and the ability to contain its masses in different parts of this continent. The state of unity that brought the nations of this continent together seems to be the factor in dividing this continent once more. In addition, the masses tend to turn toward solutions that are more radical by supporting conservative and radical political parties to save their national and personal interests.

The current super power of the world, the United States is losing its luster day after day due to heavy burdens domestically and abroad. Natural disasters and a super growing national debt is exhausting the United States, and prevents it from playing the same role it played decades ago in the world. The domestic tendency to pursue a more isolationist nature of politics is becomes stronger in the United States as well.

Nevertheless, the world is witnessing hideous actions like modern types of slavery, poverty, schism and clashes between classes in general, and the question remains, what is the solution? Why is God letting so much oppression take place? Why the rich is getting richer and why the poor is getting poorer? Where is the World heading? These questions are very common in these days, and a person does not need to be an atheist to be able to question these matters.

Politics has failed us

To start with, without any skepticism the failures of modern political schools is the main reason behind the Stephen Harper, Barack Obama, King Abdullah, Jacob Zuma, Dmitry Medvedev, Meles Zenawi, Wayne Swan, Naoto Kan, Guido Mantega, Recep Tayyip Erdogantragedies and calamities of this era. Ever since the Industrial revolution and implementation of new political order in this world, the notion of social classes has been expanded and the gap has been dilated day after day. The main theme and ideology behind most political schools, whether realism, liberalism and even socio-political philosophies like capitalism and Marxism is to ensure survival of the state, and secure self-interest.

These schools of thoughts have failed to maintain a secure notion for individualism in their societies, and even the current concept of individualism in today’s modern societies is affiliated with the notion of collective security, and interests of the state, not the sole interest of the individual him/her self. Therefore, the concept of humanity has been stripped out of its core, and its definitions are presented according to political tendencies and implementations.

Ever since the implementation of new world system, planet earth has witnessed two brutal world wars with numbers of victims being more than one hundred millions. Due to the clash of ideologies, (Capitalism VS Marxism) proxy wars and civil unrest ravished numerous countries, and civil conflicts and traditional wars have been inevitable. Therefore, all the efforts to prevent conflicts and tensions have been unsuccessful, which ultimately means the system is not functional, or in other word NOT RIGHT.

The Problem Within:

The 11th verse of Quran’s 13th chapter says, “Indeed, God will not change the condition of a people until they change what is in themselves“. The notion here is not to put the blame for today’s situation entirely on the masses themselves, but reality indicates that a big portion of the problem lies within their will and ability to desire change and wellness for themselves. History is filled with examples that shows how the masses took initiative to change their destiny and future, and regain their wills from the hands of some of the most cruel and brutal tyrants.

Therefore, the masses are faced with two choices:

  1. Their current situation is normal due to the nature of the global system, and turbulences in any path are random, and they shall be dealt with. Therefore, there is no need for drastic change, conditions will ultimately get better, and al tragedies and calamities will be over eventually.
  2. The current situation is due to the unfair nature of the current system, which is only in the benefit of the states and big corporations, and the ones with massive capital are benefiting from the calamities and tragedies. Therefore, tyranny has reshaped itself to the form of global system, and out rights shall be taken by struggle, and a drastic change is mandatory.

The one unified fact that exist in this world is the power of will and the ability to make decision, and all humans are entitled to this right no matter what. Therefore, regardless of which route is chosen by the masses, they should be willing to face the consequences of their decisions. Under no circumstance, a state or any system is able to prevent change if the masses decide it is time for change, and the power of free will is stronger than any coercive force regardless of its power.

Is there Hope?

Hope is one of the mercies that have been given to humankind to ease the pains and make the progress ofcandles world transformation more desirable and pleasurable. Nevertheless, hope is meaningless without action, and everlasting hope will kill and demolish competencies and creativity, and in some cases it could lead to catastrophic results. The first step to legitimize hope is to acknowledge the need for change, and the existence of conflict and tragedy. The fact that there are many individuals and groups seeking answers for the occurrence of these tragedies and calamities is the first step to have hope for a better tomorrow.

The other fact, which shows the core definition of the concept of humanity is still alive and present within the masses, is the good nature existing within people. We can always witness the willingness to help the victims of a calamity of any nature. The tendency to donate and the willingness to travel to disaster areas by volunteers and professionals, shows the good side of the people. A recent study showed the American people in top ranks when it came to donating and helping others, and disasters like Tsunami and others showed how much people of this planet value the concept of humanity.

In addition, it should be understood that no matter how long a system lasts, and how powerful it gets, eventually it will reach the peak of its existence, and afterward it will begin its descend and ultimately its collapse. However, it is up to humanity to choose and determine how it wants to run its affairs, and how much it will learn from past mistakes. During the dark ages, Europe was the victim of a brutal and vicious system led by an autocracy, and ultimately they decided to rise against it, through different means.