Resolution Methods for Privation & Adversity

Part 17: The economic factors for generating, sustaining and developing wealth to fight poverty (13) (Freedom Procurement)

(Based on the thoughts & theories of Ayatollah Sayed Murtadha Al-Shirazai)

By: Hussein Al-Rumaithi

The primary principle in Islam is freedom, which has been the base of Prophet Mohammad’s message to the world, where the Quran’s 157th verse of chapter 7 states: “and relieve them of their burden and the shackles which were upon them”. In addition, Imam Ali (P.B.U.H) has narrated the following beautiful traditions about freedom, where he states: Continue reading Resolution Methods for Privation & Adversity

Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib (P.B.U.H) – part 1


Misconceptions & fabrications

By: Hussein Al-Rumaithi

The two personalities in history with the most fabrications, alterations and misconceptions

against them are the Holy Prophet of Islam Mohammad (P.B.U.H) and his rightful successor Ali Ibn Abi

Talib (P.B.U.H). As discussed in previous articles the notion of fabricating misconceptions and wrong

information about the Prophet is rationally understood, as any tyrant that uses the name and slogan of

Islam must do the following:

 Distort the image of Prophet Mohammad.

 Fabricate brutal and barbaric actions and decisions carried by the Prophet to legitimize crimes.

 Fabricate supressing and crushing freedom of expression must be linked to the Prophet’s

tradition, by fabricating narrations and stories about him doing the same thing.

Therefore, witnessing the barbarism and brutality of today’s self-proclaimed Islamic states and

terrorist organizations is linked to the distorted image of Prophet Mohammad, portrayed by tyrants of

Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. However, distorting the image of Imam Ali was another method for

altering the image and reputation of Prophet Mohammad as well, since history states that Ali was

raised, nurtured and taught solely by Prophet Mohammad. Ultimately, distorting the image of Ali Ibn Abi

Talib would translates to failure for Prophet Mohammad as a care-taker, teacher and a father in-law.

In addition, to targeting the Prophet of Islam by taking aim at Imam Ali, tyrants and their aides have

been able to accomplish many goals that vary from politically motivated to ideologically, socially,

religiously and even military. Therefore, the hazy vision surrounding the personality of Imam Ali would

never be worthy of assuming the post of Caliphate, or title of most knowledgeable man after the

prophet and other attributes granted to Ali by the prophet himself. The hostility toward Ali Ibn Abi Talib,

his household and followers is undeniable, where slaughtering, displacement and persecution was the

usual end of them. Therefore, it would be beneficial to examine some of the most known and

widespread misconceptions about Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib (P.B.U.H) that are completely false and their

falsehood can be proven by an overwhelming consensus in Islamic tradition.

The birth of Imam Ali (P.B.U.H)

According to unanimity of scholars, the birth of Imam Ali happened on the 13th day of Rajab

(Lunar Calendar) on the year 601 AD. However, the miraculous fact about the birth of Imam Ali

according to historians is the events surrounding the birth time, which includes the Ka’ba in the holy city

of Mecca. Upon the time of Ali’s birth, once his mother (Fatima Bint Assad) began to have contractions,

she approached the house of God (the Ka’ba) and ask for the aid of almighty. Witnesses’ testimonies

indicate, the wall burst open and Fatima entered the house of God, then the wall came back together

and anyone attempting to open the door failed to do so. Three days later, Fatima Bint Assad came out of

the Ka’ba from the same split in the wall after it happened again, while carrying a child and that child

was name Ali by his father Abi Talib.

Although during the Umayyad era, many of Ali’s attributes and well characters were denied,

challenged and distorted, yet the consensus among Islamic scholars about the birth of Imam Ali inside

the house of God is undeniable. Here are some of the most respected and known Sunni sources that

affirm the news of Ali’s birth inside the Ka’ba.

 Al-Mustadrak Ala Al-Sahihain by: Al-Hakim Al-Nisaburi

 Kefayat Al-Athar by: Al-Kanji Al-Shafi’ie

 Al-Tafsir Al-Kabir by: Mohammad Al-Alusi

 Moruj Al-Thahab by: Al-Masoodi

 Tathkerat Khawas Al-Umma by: Sibt Ibn Al-Jozi

 Al-Manaqib by: Mohammad Saleh Al-Tirmidhi

Note: all of these famous Sunni scholars have affirmed the authenticity of any tradition that states

Ali Ibn Abi Talib was born in the Ka’ba. There are tens of others sources, yet the mentioned sources in

this article shall be sufficient.

The title: Commander of the Faithful

Among the most famous titles allocated to Imam Ali (P.B.U.H), one title is very special and

outstanding more than others, yet it was the first one taken from him and used by every tyrant that

ruled the Islamic Empire. The title is ‘Commander of the Faithful’. This title holds a great deal of

importance, as it grants the bearer a religious legitimacy alongside his political authority. Although there

are numerous narrations that indicate this title was solely granted to Imam Ali by the holy Prophet, yet

as mentioned all Caliphs and self-proclaimed commanders of the Islamic Empire used this title and

called themselves: Commander of the faithful. The legitimacy of this title for Imam Ali has been

confirmed by several Shi’i and Sunni sources, where either by direct testimony this fact is stated, or by

giving a clear indication the prophet identifies Ali as Commander of the Faithful.

 Kitab Al-Kafi by: Al-Kulayni (Shi’i source)

 Al-Amali by: Sheikh Al-Sadooq (Shi’i source)

 Al-Mustarshid by: Al-Tabari (Sunni source)

 Helyat Al-Awlia’a by: Al-Hafidh Al-Isfahani (Sunni source)

 Tarikh Ibn Asaker by: Ibn Asaker (Sunni source)

 Al-Mujam Al-Sagheer by: Al-Tabarani (Sunni source)

There are tens of other sources that affirm this notion and allocation of the title to Ali Ibn Abi Talib

by the Holy Prophet.

To be continued.


Persian New Year

The 20th of March on each year marks the start of New Persian year, which is called the “Nowrooz Holiday”. The term ‘Nowrooz’ is a combination of two Persian words, the first one being ‘Now’, which means new and the second one is ‘Rooz’, which means day and when combine these two together the phrase NEW DAY is reached. According to Shia traditions, Imam Ali (P.B.U.H) was approached about this holiday and he was told: Persians celebrate this occasion where they embrace the beginning of spring, they clean their residence, buy new clothing, visit their relatives, help the needy and many other virtues. It is narrated that Imam Ali replied: all of our days are Nowrooz if we carry out these deeds. The reply of Imam Ali is obviously understood as praising the holiday and what it represents for its people, since the beginning of a new year is celebrated by those virtuous deeds and actions that bring nothing but joy and happiness to the souls.
The preparation for Nowrooz celebration includes having 7 things that start with the letter (S) in the Persian language and recitation of a small prayer upon entering the New Year. This holiday is mainly celebrated in Iran, Afghanistan, Kurdistan, Uzbekistan and many other countries that share the Persian linage or the Persian language.
Although Nowrooz is an ancient Persian holiday, yet after the conquest of Persia and arrival of Islam in Iran, unlike many other traditions this holiday was not vanished nor opposed by Muslims, and as mentioned before, Imam Ali (P.B.U.H) praised the holiday and wished all days of the year to be Nowrooz. The contribution of Persians to the Islamic society at the same time has been astonishing in many fields, where even until this day many accomplishments are credited to Persian scholars, who enriched the Islamic tradition. In addition, it shall not be forgotten that among the most respected companions of Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) is a Persian man named Salman Al-Farisi, who the Prophet renamed as Salman Al-Mohammadi.
The start of Nowrooz celebrations marks the start of spring, which ends the cold chapter of winter and calls for warming the hearts and replacing hatred and grudges with love. Therefore, let’s hope that one day humanity can also celebrate its Nowrooz, where equality, justice and peace prevails and tyranny and injustice is vanished.

Is the Islamic State Islamic?

The rise of a terrorist group unjustifiably named the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria has been a disaster for the image of Islam. Here is a group of people who claim to be fundamentalist literalist Muslims who justify their medieval punishments with Islamic rhetoric. With the recent Paris bombing in November 2015, or the barbaric beheadings, in cold blood and on camera, of 5 western hostages between August and November 2014, the consequences are as expected…
The rise of Islamophobia in the West has drastically increased and crucial detail notes that it is not just ill informed or ignorant members of society who have aided this rise. As these terrorists are constantly being thrusted into the spotlight, a vast majority of people inevitably begin to view ISIS as “very Islamic” or “the true form of Islam”.
This, unfortunately, has brought much hate towards those who are not only targeted by islamophobic western media but also by those who deem themselves the true believers and decide that Shia Muslims should not be give the right to life. This terrorism existed since after the death of our holy Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), when the first act of beheading in the name of Islam was showcased in the battle of Karbala. Their thirst for power and worldly affairs was the only driving force and, because of it, millions have been inhumanely beheaded, shot, and murdered in the name of Islam.
A fundamental error of attribution, society’s excessive emphasis on religious motivation to explain the behavior of ISIS, has been the easiest route for most to take because it’s much easier to blame it on the most prominent common denominator, Islam, than studying the underlying characteristics that ISIS members have in common.
People have seemingly begun to deem ISIS to be a religious ideology rather than considering the relevant external factors that play a dominant role in forming this radical group.
Political Aspects
Analyzing the political aspects of the creation of the so-called ‘Islamic State’, one must acknowledge the long period of war, torture, occupation and sectarianism that flourished in the land of Iraq and the firing of the Iraqi army in 2003, which created perfect conditions for the rise of the hybridized terror group.
Dissolving the Iraqi army meant taking away the identity of Sunni Muslims who relied on the armed forces of Saddam Hussein as their symbolic support of identity. A political statement more than a religious one, Sunnis, the minority who had government control during Saddam Hussein’s regime, were suddenly replaced by the Shia-led government of Nouri Al-Maliki.
The Sunni insurgents went on to form Al Qaeda in Iraq in 2004, which then morphed into the Islamic State (IS) after its leader Abu Musab Zarqawi was killed in the summer of 2006. Over 100 Saddam Hussein-era officers run the so-called “jihadi” military groups. Now, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the Islamic State caliphate, appointed his deputy in Iraq to be Abu Muslim al-Turkmani, a former senior special forces officer in Hussein’s army. Furthermore, Baghdadi’s number two in Syria is Abu Ali al-Anbari, a former major general under Saddam Hussein.
Therefore, to give themselves more legitimacy, they use religion as an identity; to identify themselves with the 120,000 innocent Iraqis who have been killed by US-led coalition forces and the sectarian civil war between Shias and Sunnis as justification to drive their terror against the West and Shias. This identity is a form of justification for their thirst for political power, distinguishing themselves with the abused victims and classifying their terror as justice.
Where Might Some Derive a Fraudulent Religious Connection?
Now one may ask why certain Western young men and women aspire to join the blood-drenched group. In a study done by MI5, the United Kingdom’s domestic counter-intelligence and security agency, it revealed: “Far from being religious zealots, a large number of those involved in terrorism do not practice their faith regularly. Many lack religious literacy and could be regarded as religious novices”.
Indeed religious novices, such as Yusuf Sarwar and Mohammed Ahmed, two young British Muslims who were convicted of terrorism charges after travelling to fight in Syria had bought copies of The Koran for Dummies from Amazon prior to their travel. Most of those who join ISIS are similar to these young men; their blinded, ignorant, and uneducated mistakes take the lives of millions every year. Whoever said ignorance is bliss was wrong, ignorance merely makes you a slave to those who can burden the weight of intelligence.
Analysts also noted that there was a high number of converts and a lofty tendency for “drug-taking, drinking alcohol and visiting prostitutes”. Here we have vulnerable people; people who are frustrated with the world they live in, not necessarily motivated and obsessed with a messianic and apocalyptic view of the world. They are then introduced to charismatic persuasive figures who cherry pick texts out of context from Islamic literature that promises to enlist them in a greater cause and paradise.
MI5 has further investigated evidence that proves that a well-developed religious identity protects against violent radicalization. This created identity isn’t part and parcel with the Islamic identity and anyone who knows a fraction of Islamic truths can arrive to that conclusion reasonably.
The Stance of the 1.6 billion Peaceful Muslims
Dissecting the stance of Muslims on their view on ISIS is a pivotal aspect of this argument. Conceivably the most impressive achievement of ISIS is the way in which it united 1.6 billion, often divided, Muslims against it.
Whether one is Sunni, Shia, Salafi, Sufi, conservative, or liberal, all leaders and scholars have unanimously condemned and denounced ISIS from the religion of Islam.
Considering the statements of famous Muslim groups around the world is an essential facet. The Organization of Islamic Co-operation, representing 57 countries around the world stated that ISIS has “nothing to do with Islam”; the most prestigious Sunni University, al-Azhar University in Cairo stated that ISIS is acting “under the guise of this holy religion… in an attempt to export their false Islam”; and even Saudi Arabia’s Grand salafist Mufti, Abdul Aziz ibn Abdullah ash-Sheikh stated that ISIS is “the number one enemy of Islam”.
Many blame the violent extremism on the Salafism ideology, a extremely conservative branch of Islam, which owes much of it’s controversial teachings to 18th century preacher named Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahab, which is the source behind much of the sectarianism and misogyny in the Muslim world.
Although it is proven that most Salafis are not Jihadists and most adhere to sects that reject the Islamic State, the ideology itself remains the same even though they are ignorant to it. They may reject the actions of ISIS, but only because they are so heavily denounced for their beliefs. Their utopia would look exactly like what the ISIS is currently working to build; extermination of Shia, and other people who they conceive to be the ‘kafir’ or disbelievers.
The religious world, whether Muslim, Jewish or Christian, is packed with fringe and fundamentalist groups that claim the mantle of total authenticity. Therefore, people cannot interpret ISIS’ twisted and corrupted view of Islam to be the legitimate, authentic, or rational driving force of their terror.
To claim that ISIS is “Islamic” is inaccurate and insulting to the 1.6 billion non-violent adherents of Islam across the planet. In contrast to how the KKK and the Branch Davidians are not considered the image for Christianity, neither should ISIS be considered the image of Islam. Fundamentally, it is also dangerous because it provides ISIS leaders and their slaves with propaganda and a tool for recruiting, which is one they utterly crave.

What constitutes the cost of freedom?

Stability VS Reform


By: Hussein Al-Rumaithi
The common notion between freedom and power is, they both have had wars raged for their sake during the course of history. Although, the thirst for power has caused more wars and taken more lives, but freedom has been the primary cause of many battle, conflicts and wars in various times and places. Therefore, it would be beneficial to dissect the legitimacy of any movement that claims freedom is its goal, and see what are the acceptable sacrifices to reach freedom? In addition, it would be beneficial to define freedom as well, and compare to contemporary and ancient definitions of freedom.
Definition of Freedom
The 70th verse of Quran’s 17th chapter states: “and we have certainly honored the children of Adam and carried them on the land and sea and provided for them of the good things and preferred them over much of what we have created, with (definite) preference”. According to many narrations and traditions by the Holy Prophet and his holy household, the definition of ‘HONORED’ in this verse applies to the notion of freedom and free will. To assert this notion, the 4th verse of Quran’s 95th chapter has indicated: “we have certainly created man (humans) in the best stature”. The implication of this verse cannot be applied on the physical aspect of humans’ creation, as the entire creations in the universe are created in a very precise and detailed system. Animals, plants, objects, mountains, skies, planets and everything in this universe has the perfect stature. Therefore, by secluding the humans in this verse, the almighty must be outlining a major difference between humans and his other creation, which would be the power of will and freedom that he has granted to humans.
There is a jurisprudential principle in Shia Islam that is called “La Tharar wa la Thirar’, or what translated in English as, no harm (To self) and no harm to others. This jurisprudential principle has helped jurists with hundreds of ruling about the notion of damage and its personal and social side effects. According to this principle, any action and conduct that might harm one’s self of others is prohibited ad considered HARAM. According to Shia scholars, the notion of freedom falls under this category and principle, so it can be contained and managed in a way that doesn’t interrupt the social fabric of a society. For example, any human being is free to drive his/her car at a speed, which he/she desires. However, since this action will cause fear and possible harm and danger to others, Islam considers it as prohibited and places the state law as the judge to set a speed limit for the society’s safety. In addition, any individual, who wished to exceed the speed limit, shall be ready to face the consequences of his/her action in the case of damage or even being pulled over by authorities.
Types of Freedom
Three guaranteed freedoms of any human on the face of this planet, according to Shia Islam have been outlined by the holy prophet and his holy household in their narrations and traditions. These freedoms are sufficient to address the entire needs and necessities of life, which will result in a state of self-sustainability in all parts of this planet, where no human will require any aide and help of externals.
Intellectual Freedom: in a narration by Imam Ali, he says: “do not be a slave of others, when God has created you free”. This narration affirms the notion of freedom and rejects any notion of compulsion in Islam, since free-will and the freedom of acceptation and rejection is a concept that has been state by the Holy Quran “There is no Compulsion in religion”. In addition, intellectual freedom enables and urges humans to seek and search for answers, and since logic is the only thing that will always prevail, accepting the truth and adopting it will be the ultimate benefit for all humans.
Political Freedom: humans are entitled to choose any system for their governance, as no regime is allowed to impose itself upon humans to govern them and manage their affairs. The 71st verse of Quran’s 17th chapter states: “the day we will call forth every people with their leader”. This verse clearly indicates that God has granted his subjects to choose the system they desire for governance, and that system will represent them in all aspects of life. In addition, the freedom of opposition has been granted by Islam as well, through freedom to form political parties and institutions, which includes all groups.
Economic Freedoms: Shia jurists have derived many rulings in this regard from a jurisprudential principle set by the Holy Prophet in a narration. The principle states: “people are in command of their wealth and life”. This jurisprudential principle has enable scholars to outline the economic freedom granted by God to his subjects during their earthly life. Individuals are entitled to invest their wealth in any field they desire, as long as their investments don’t harm others and confiscate their property, rights and efforts. This notion applies to time and place as well, as individuals are entitled to invest anywhere and anytime they see as beneficial to their investment. In addition, all humans are free to work in any field they desire, and no one shall have the right to force a person to work and be active in a certain field against his/her will. This includes cultivation as well, as Islam has a general principle that states: “Land belongs to whomever revives it”. Therefore, if an individual decides to choose a certain land and cultivate in it and revives that land, it shall belong to him. These principles have outlined the role of the state as well, as the state’s role is limited to providing security and order in the society through rule of law and arbitration (Judicial system).
Social Freedoms: These freedoms include a wide range of aspects and notions that address and manage a smooth transition and flow of social affairs in a society. Freedom of Travel and residence, as people are entitled to travel wherever they desire and reside wherever they desire as well. Personal freedoms, such as marriage, divorce, contraception, name and any other notion that helps distinguish an individual from another. Individuals are entitled to choose their spouses and no one has the right to force a certain person upon another one, as permission is the primary base from any marriage in Islam. In addition, spouses are entitled to end their matrimony if they desire and see their relation is unresolvable. Women have the right to use contraception methods, if child birth is harmful for them. All individuals are entitled to choose a name for themselves, or change the name that was given to them at birth, and many other rights that ensure the dignity and status of a human being is sanctioned.
To be continued

Shia Imams & Infallibility

By: Hussein Al-Rumaithi

The notion of infallibility is very sensitive issue that is viewed differently by all religions and ideologies, since the predominant belief indicates that infallibility is hard to prove, especially when the private life of people cannot be observed and dissected. However, the Shia Muslims are among the few sects on the face of earth that believe in the infallibility of all messengers of God from Adam to Mohammad, and the infallibility of their twelve Imams alongside Lady Fatima Al-Zahra. The notion of infallibility within Shia school of thought is not limited to the missionary role of messengers and Imams, as it includes their whole life, which is their statements, conducts, response, dialogue, actions, morals and even conjecture. Shia Muslims even refuse the notion of omission and heedlessness, when it comes to messengers, prophets and Imams, and believe full awareness is a necessary characteristic of them in all circumstances.

Infallibility & Logic

The necessity of belief and religion is among the invariant fundamentals agreed upon by majority of school of thoughts and philosophers, as the state of supplication is a natural characteristic and attribute of all humans. Therefore, presenting any religion and belief requires several necessities, which from the legitimacy of that religion and whether it holds any accountability. Among the main necessities of presenting and delivering any religion and ideology is the notion of credibility and trust, which must be combined by cognitive awareness and knowledge. The primary response to any new ideology is entirely dependent on the credibility and trustworthy of the bearer of that ideology, which means if that person is known to have no credibility and knowledge, his statements and presented ideas would not even be heard by majority of people.

However, when it comes to the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) the followers of these religions believe their faiths have been directly sent by the almighty, which mandates the presenter and deliverer of these religions must hold an accountability that matches the source of these religions. Therefore, the notion of infallibility insures the credibility and the legitimacy of the ideology and its sponsors.

The logical rationales for the necessity of infallibility of Imams can be presented as follow:

  • The Imam is the guardian of Sharia and religion and therefore, he has to be infallible to ensure there is no imperfection and insufficiency or increment in any aspects of the religion.
  • The Imam is the political leader of Muslims and his subjects, therefore his infallibility will ensure there will be no oppression, aggression and violation against their rights.
  • The Imam must be infallible and sanctioned against any mistakes and wrongdoings, as if he is not infallible, he would require guidance and consultation in his affairs, which means the one who might guide an Imam is more worthy of having this position.
  • Infallibility of an Imam would prevent him from being an adulator or flatterer, as this action would create turmoil and instability in society.
  • An Imam should not commit any sins and wrongdoings, as if this attribute is not given to an Imam the notion of interdiction of wrong and ordering good would be inapplicable since it can’t be implemented on the Imam as the leader of society.
  • An Imam should be a role model and the perfect example in all of his deeds, actions and statements, which affirms the necessity of infallibility.
  • An Imam should be the most credible and trustworthy person at his time, as the notion of legitimizing his message is dependable on his credibility and authenticity, which also affirms the notion of infallibility.
  • An Imam should refrain from doing any indecent, disgraceful and shameful action, as his popularity and legitimacy can be questioned.
  • An Imam should be obeyed at all times, and obedience of a non-infallible is not mandatory.
  • The Imam must hold a higher status than rest of the society through his refrainment from sins and wrongdoings, and his absolute awareness and intellectual superiority. Therefore, without having the attribute of infallibility, an Imam is not different than any random individual of the society.
  • The Imam must be infallible and away from all actions that are considered evil, wrong, impermissible and non-recommended to be in the highest status before the almighty, as anything other than this notion would equalize the Imam with any random individual in society.

To be Continued  

The Current Scholars of Shia Muslims

Who are the scholars that Shias around the globe follow?

By: Hussein Al-Rumaithi

In a previous article, the rationale behind the notion of following a scholar or an Ayatollah by all Shi’a Muslims was clarified and presented. In addition, the article presented a clear definition about the legitimacy, characteristics and details of a qualified jurist, who is eligible for this post according to the narration of Shi’a Imams and Prophet Mohammad. However, in this article we shall present the names of current prominent and legitimate scholars who are being followed by millions of Shi’as around the world.

As discussed in the previous article, the statement of Imam Al-Askari clarified the notion that the possibility of rouge and corrupt scholars is always present, and therefore, he have clear and specific guidelines for identifying such cases. Nevertheless, at the present time there are eight prominent scholars, who are being followed by millions of Shi’a Muslims around the globe, and these scholars are agreed to be the most pious and knowledgeable by all sides and schools of thoughts.

  1. Grand Ayatollah Sayed Ali Al-Sistani. He is the highest religious authority of Shi’a Muslims at the present time, who resides in the city of Najaf in Iraq. There is no official survey about the number of followers this scholar has, but it is believed that he has the highest number of followers in the world. Ayatollah Al-Sistani was born in Iraq, but he migrated to Iraq when he was a child and remained there ever since. He is considered one of the great pupils of late Ayatollah Khoie, who is still considered one of the greatest scholars Shi’a Islam has ever known.
  2. Grand Ayatollah Sayed Mohammad Sae’ed Al-Hakeem. Ayatollah Al-Hakeem was born in the city of Najaf, Iraq in 1936. He attended the lectures of his late father, Ayatollah Sayed Mohammad Ali Al-Hakeem, his late Grand Father, Ayatollah Sayed Mohsin Al-Hakeem, Ayatollah Ali Al-Hilli and Ayatollah Khoie. Currently, Ayatollah Hakeem resides in the city of Najaf and he is followed by millions of Shi’a Muslims around the globe.
  3. Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Basheer Al-Najafi. Ayatollah Al-Najafi was born in the city of Jalandhar in 1942 (British India & Current Pakistan). He migrated to the city of Najaf, Iraq in early 1960s and stayed there for the purpose of studying in the religious seminaries of Najaf. He attended the lectures of Ayatollah Sayed Mohammad Al-Rouhani and Ayatollah Al-Khoie. He is still residing in Najaf, Iraq and his followers are millions of Shi’a Muslims around the globe.
  4. Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Ishaq Al-Fayath. He is from an Afghani origin, who was born in 1930 in Afghanistan. He migrated with his family to Najaf, Iraq when he was ten years old, and entered the Shi’a seminaries and started his long journey in religious studies. He attended the lectures of late Ayatollah Al-Khoie and many other grand jurists in the city of Najaf. Currently, he resides in the city of Najaf and has many followers around the globe.
  5. Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Wahid Al-Khorasani. He is considered the leader of Qom seminary, although he does not have an official post. Ayatollah Khorasani has millions of followers around the globe, and his religious authority is compared similar to Ayatollah Sistani in Iraq. He was born in the city of Nishabur, Iran. He migrated to the city of Najaf in 1962 and attended the lectures of Ayatollah Khoie and returned to Iran in 1972.
  6. Grand Ayatollah Sayed Sadeq Al-Rouhani. Ayatollah Rouhani is considered one of the few individuals who finished the high levels of Shi’a seminaries in his teenage years. He was born in the city of Qom, Iran in 1926. He migrated to the city of Najaf and attended the lectures of late Ayatollah Al-Khoie, Ayatollah Kompani, Ayatollah AboulHassan Isfahani and other Grand Ayatollahs. His extensive intellect and knowledge is acknowledged by many Shi’a scholars and he is considered one of the most knowledgeable scholars of modern era. Ayatollah Rouhani is followed by millions of Shi’a Muslims around the globe, and currently he resides in the city of Qom.
  7. Grand Ayatollah Sayed Sadeq Al-Shirazi. Ayatollah Al-Shirazi is part of a family line that has given so many scholars and thinkers to the Islamic nation. His father and brother were Grand Ayatollahs as well, and he is considered one of the most knowledgeable jurists alive at the present time. He was born in city of Karbala, Iraq in 1942, and he attended the lectures of his late father, Ayatollah Sayed Mahdi Al-Shirazi, his late brother Ayatollah Sayed Mohammad Al-Shirazi, Ayatollah Sayed Hadi Al-Milani and Ayatollah Sayed Mohammad Redha Al-Isfahani. Ayatollah Shirazi is followed by millions of Shi’a Muslims around the globe.
  8. Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Lotfollah Safi Golpaygani. Ayatollah Golpaygani is one of the oldest Shi’a scholars alive in the present time, as he was born in 1919, in the city of Golpaygan, Iran. He attended the lectures of Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi and many other great scholars. At the present time, Ayatollah Golpaygani resides in the city of Qom, Iran and he is considered one of the major religious authorities in Iran, who is being followed by many Shi’a Muslims.
  9. Grand Ayatollah Sayed Taqi Al-Qomi. He is the son of Grand Ayatollah Sayed Hussein Al-Qomi, who is known for his role in the Iranian constitutional revolution. Ayatollah Qomi was born in the city of Mash’had, Iran in 1923. He migrated to Iraq in 1936 and studied in the seminaries of Karbala and Najaf and attended the lectures of his father, and Ayatollah Sayed Hadi Al-Milani, Ayatollah Al-Khoie and many other scholars. Currently, he resides in the city of Qom, and has many followers around the world.